Risks Of Not Having A Period

Are There Side Effects After The Covid

Can COVID-19 vaccine impact your menstrual cycle? Doctors address side-effects concerns

Its possible that youll experience the following side effects after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine:

  • pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site

2018 study , also in students, found that high stress was correlated with missed periods, painful periods, and premenstrual syndrome .

Early results from a study of elite athletes found that 1 in 5 noticed changes in their menstrual cycle during the pandemic. While some of these are likely due to changes in training frequency and intensity, the researchers believe that psychological factors like increased stress also played a role.

Ht Forms And Regimens

HT comes in several forms:

  • Oral tablets or pills
  • Vaginal ring
  • Topical gel or spray

HT pills and skin patches are considered “systemic” therapy because the medication delivered affects the entire body. The risk for blood clots, heart attacks, and certain types of cancers is higher with hormone pills than with skin patches or other transdermal forms.

Vaginal forms of HT are called “local” therapy. Doctors generally prescribe vaginal applications of low-dose estrogen therapy to specifically treat menopausal symptoms such as vaginal dryness and pain during sex. This type of ET is available in a cream, tablet, or ring that is inserted into the vagina.

“Bioidentical” Hormones

“Bioidentical” hormone therapy is promoted as a supposedly more natural and safer alternative to commercial prescription hormones. Bioidentical hormones are typically compounded in a pharmacy. Some compounding pharmacies claim that they can customize these formulations based on saliva tests that show a woman’s individual hormone levels.

The FDA and many professional medical associations warn patients that “bioidentical” is a marketing term that has no scientific validity. Formulations sold in these pharmacies have not undergone FDA regulatory scrutiny. Some of these compounds contain estriol, a weak form of estrogen, which has not been approved by the FDA for use in any drug. In addition, saliva tests do not give accurate or realistic results, as a woman’s hormone levels fluctuate throughout the day.

What Are Irregular Periods

Typically, a womans menstruation occurs roughly every 28 days or somewhere between 21 and 35 days. It usually lasts anywhere between four and seven days. For most women, their menstrual flow fluctuates throughout their period, but the pattern is mostly the same from month to month.

However, many women experience irregular periods, which can be unpredictable. For example, an irregular period might mean having a period that occurs more frequently than every 21 days or having a period that occurs less frequently than every 35 days both of which are outside the normal range for a menstrual cycle.

An irregular period might mean missing multiple periods in a row or missing your period indefinitely. Women with irregular periods also sometimes experience drastic or unpredictable fluctuations in their flow.

Irregular periods often occur with many other symptoms. Side effects of irregular periods might include:

If you experience irregular periods or any of their side effects, it is important to see your doctor.

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Period Problem: Irregular Periods

Your periods are considered irregular if your menstrual cycle is shorter or longer than average. This means that the time from the first day of your last period up to the start of your next period is less than 24 days or more than 38 days.

Your periods can also be irregular if your cycle length varies by more than 20 days from month to month.10 An example would be your cycle jumping from a normal 25-day cycle to a 46-day cycle the next month and then back to a 25-day cycle the following month.

Irregular periods are normal for teenage girls and perimenopausal women. Teen girls periods may be irregular for the first few years before becoming more regular. During the transition to menopause, called perimenopause, menstrual cycles may become more irregular over time.

Causes of irregular periods include:

The Truth About Natural Periods

Am I Fertile After My Period

Some people think that its natural to have a period every month when they are using birth control. But, its not a real period that youre getting, says Black. When you stop taking the birth control pill for seven days, youre having a hormone-withdrawal bleed. This bleeding simulates what happens at the end of a regular menstrual cycle when estrogen and progesterone levels drop.

Meanwhile, when you take contraception continuously, youre maintaining steady levels of those hormones. This means that withdrawal bleeding does not occur, says Black. So when you use birth control continuously, youre suppressing withdrawal bleeding, not a natural period.

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Whats The Best Treatment For A Yeast Infection

Use of certain medications, including antipsychotics or drugs to treat certain cancers, can also stop your period for a time.

Sometimes the dysfunction occurs for other reasons. Hormonal issues can stop menstruation in a previously regular woman, or it can be the cause of primary amenorrhea, where the menstrual period hasnt yet begun.

Common hormonal problems causing amenorrhea include:

Occasionally, primary amenorrhea results from a congenital anatomic abnormality of the reproductive system or from a genetic condition, such as fragile x syndrome.

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Treatment For Athletic Amenorrhoea

Treatment options for athletic amenorrhoea depend on the person, but can include:

  • exercising less often or choosing sports that are not as intense
  • putting on two or three kilograms of body fat
  • starting the combined oral contraceptive pill or hormone therapy if dietary changes and reduced exercise do not result in regular menstruation returning
  • making dietary changes such as increasing calcium and daily kilojoules
  • taking calcium supplements to increase bone strength and prevent osteoporosis
  • seeking counselling if an eating disorder is an issue.

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When To See Your Gp

See your GP if you’re not pregnant you’ve had a negative pregnancy test and you’ve missed more than 3 periods in a row.

If you’re sexually active and you have not taken a pregnancy test, your GP may advise you to take one.

They may also ask you about:

  • your medical history
  • any emotional issues you’re having
  • any recent changes in your weight
  • the amount of exercise you do

Your GP may recommend waiting to see whether your periods return on their own. In some cases you may need treatment for your periods to return.

You should also see your GP if your periods stop before you’re 45 or if you’re still bleeding when you’re over 55.

Be Your Own Iud Advocate

Bleeding in Between Periods | Is It Normal to Have Your Period Twice a Month

If you feel an IUD is right for you, talk to your healthcare provider and discuss any concerns you may have about IUD risks and safety. If you dont get the answers you were hoping for, its perfectly fine to get a second opinion. Its also helpful to know the following:

  • You can use an IUD even if you have never given birth.
  • You do not need a new IUD if you have switched sexual partners.
  • You do not need to be in a monogamous relationship to use an IUD.

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Amenorrhea Treatment And Home Care

Treatment for amenorrhea will focus on the condition that causes it. Hormone replacement therapy or birth control pills can help start your menstrual cycle again. A thyroid or pituitary disorder can be treated with medication. Physical abnormalities may need surgery.

If something such as stress, weight gain or loss, or depression is affecting your menstrual cycle, you can take an active role in your treatment by taking steps to manage it. Friends, family, or your doctor may be able to help you.

You can help your doctor trace the cause of your amenorrhea by tracking changes in your cycle and symptoms and sharing this information with them. Tell them what medications youâre taking, and about changes in your diet, exercise habits, and stress levels.

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Side Effects Of Not Ejaculating

The side effects of not ejaculating depend on the cause and the person.

People who choose not to ejaculate are unlikely to experience harmful side effects. The body breaks down unused sperm, which does not build up to trigger further problems.

Over time, not ejaculating can trigger psychological problems.

For example, people with sexual dysfunctions that affect their ability to ejaculate may experience distress or embarrassment. It can also lead to relationship problems. For example, partners may become frustrated with a person with sexual dysfunction.

These psychological problems could lead to mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety disorders.

Not everyone needs treatment for not ejaculating. For example, people who practice edging choose to delay ejaculation.

There are several treatments for people with sexual dysfunctions that prevent ejaculation, depending on their cause.

Many triggers are psychological, and people may benefit from psychotherapy or counseling. These sessions may involve the individual alone or with their partner.

Other causes are physical. For example, people with an infection can experience anejaculation or retrograde ejaculation. In these cases, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics or antiviral medications.

In addition, certain medical procedures, such as prostate surgery, can lead to retrograde ejaculation.

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What Is The Risk Of Infection For Sex During Menstruation

There are two types of infection that may occur due to sexual activity: STIs and problems caused by changes in normal vaginal flora, such as yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis.

While yeast infections can also occur without engaging in sexual activity, people may have a higher risk of getting a yeast infection due to the hormonal changes during a period.

Vaginal-penile sex can also spread yeast infections, causing the head of the penis to become inflamed. This condition is called balanitis.

The estimate there are 20 million new sexually transmitted infections annually in the United States alone.

Sexually transmitted infections include:

According to The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, most women experience a 28-day menstrual cycle.

This cycle lasts from the first day of menstrual bleeding to the day before bleeding begins the following month. The length of the cycle varies between individuals, but is usually between 2632 days long, with 28 days being the average.

The most fertile time of the menstrual cycle is between days 8 and 19.

This is the time when the egg is released from the ovary during ovulation and travels down the fallopian tube where fertilization occurs. If fertilized by a sperm, the egg makes its way to the uterus for implantation.

Although timing is everything, some important facts to consider include:

Following ovulation, an egg can stay alive and viable in a womans fallopian tube for 24 hours.

  • breast-feeding or pregnancy

Referral To A Consultant

Spotting Before or After Period: Low and High

If your GP thinks a medical condition might have caused your periods to stop, they may refer you to a consultant who specialises in the condition.

Depending on what your GP suspects is causing the problem, you may be referred to:

  • a gynaecologist a specialist in treating conditions that affect the female reproductive system
  • an endocrinologist a specialist in treating hormonal conditions

You may have a full gynaecological examination and various tests, including:

  • blood tests to see whether you have abnormal levels of certain hormones
  • an ultrasound scan, CT scan or MRI scan to identify any problems with your reproductive system or the pituitary gland in your brain

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Will I Need Any Tests To Diagnose Amenorrhea

Your healthcare provider may want to do some tests, including:

  • Blood tests to check hormone levels and detect thyroid or adrenal gland disorders.
  • Genetic testing, if you have primary ovarian insufficiency and are younger than 40.
  • MRI, if your provider suspects a problem with the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.

Risk Factors For Complications

Most women will not have any problems using an IUD. But if you have some health conditions, you may be more at risk of developing serious complications while using an IUD. These include being at risk for STIs at the time of insertion. Other complications can occur if you:

  • Have serious blood clots in deep veins or lungs
  • Have had PID in the past 12 months
  • Have diabetes or severe anemia
  • Have blood that doesn’t clot or if you take medication that helps your blood to clot
  • Have had two or more STIs within the past two years
  • Have or had ovarian cancer
  • Take daily medication containing a corticosteroid
  • Have a history of tubal infection
  • Have uncontrolled infections of the cervix or vagina, such as bacterial vaginosis
  • Have a uterus positioned very far forward or backward in the pelvis
  • Have a history of impaired fertility and the desire to get pregnant in the future

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What Should I Do If I Have Not Started My Period

Girls start their periods at a very variable age. So it may be that your friends have been having periods for a while but you have not. Usually this will be normal variation and nothing to worry about. Ask your doctor’s advice if:

  • You are 16 years old or older and still have no periods.
  • You are 14 years old or older and have not developed breasts or pubic hair and do not have periods.
  • You have a pain in your tummy every month but no bleeding.
  • You can feel a lump in the lower part of your tummy.
  • You have had sex without using contraception .

Can You Have Sex During Your Period

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During your reproductive years, youll get a menstrual period about once a month. Unless youre especially squeamish, theres no need to avoid sexual activity during your period. Though period sex can be a bit messy, it is safe. And, having sex when youre menstruating can actually offer a few advantages, including relief from menstrual cramps.

Read on to learn more about sex during your period.

Having sex during your period has a few upsides:

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Are There Side Effects Of Using The Pill To Skip Your Period Continually

The main side effect of having long bleeding-free stretches is an increase in unpredictable breakthrough bleeding . The good news is that the frequency of breakthrough bleeding may decreases over time . Other than increased rates of breakthrough bleeding, taking your birth control pill consecutively, as opposed to having monthly pill-periods, does cause any additional side effects .

A concern about not having a regular âperiodâ is that you lose the monthly confirmation that youâre not pregnant. Although skipping your withdrawal bleed with the pill provides you with the same contraceptive protection as before, it also comes with the same risks if you donât take your pill on a regular daily basis.

Will My Period Return

Typically, your period will return once you treat the underlying cause. However, it may take time to become regular again.

In some cases, you may have a health problem that means youll never have a period. If that is the case, your provider can talk to you about fertility options if you wish to have a baby.

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What Are The Side Effects Of Not Eating

Food is energy. It provides the raw materials that all your body systems rely on for proper functioning. Not eating leads to a host of side effects, which may be minor at first however, they can quickly progress to result in more serious, life-threatening consequences.

Not eating can lead to fatigue, gastrointestinal distress, nutrient deficiencies and slowed metabolism.

Effects Of Irregular Periods On The Body

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Menstrual Cycle

Each one of us is different, including our period. Some periods may be unpredictable. Others just come exactly after a specific day. Periods are usually experienced after 24 to 38 days from the date of the last period, and it usually lasts around 2 to 8 days. If it sounds different from yours, you may think that your period is irregular. If you are in doubt or if it really is, let us learn the effects of irregular periods on your body.

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How Long Does The Transition To Menopause Last

Perimenopause, the transition to menopause, can last between two and eight years before your periods stop permanently. For most women, this transition to menopause lasts about four years. You will know you have reached menopause only after it has been a full year since your last period. This means you have not had any bleeding, including spotting, for 12 months in a row.

What Else Should I Ask My Provider

When you talk to your healthcare provider, ask:

  • What is causing the amenorrhea?
  • What are my treatment options, and what are the risks and benefits to each?
  • Do I need to see an endocrinologist for hormonal treatments?
  • Can I still get pregnant if I have amenorrhea?
  • Once my period returns, can I get amenorrhea again?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

If youre an older teenager who hasnt gotten a period yet, or youve had a normal menstrual cycle but now youre missing periods, talk to your healthcare provider. Amenorrhea is usually the sign of a treatable condition. Once your provider figures out whats causing missed periods, you can get care to regulate your cycle. You may need lifestyle changes or hormonal treatment to help resume normal menstrual cycles.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 09/30/2020.


  • Hormone Health Network. Amenorrhea. Accessed 10/20/2020.
  • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Amenorrhea. Accessed 10/20/2020.
  • American Academy of Family Physicians. Amenorrhea. Accessed 10/20/2020.

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